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Procedural Principle

In the friction welding process, two components are firmly clamped in place and moved relative to each other. A specified friction force is applied to the touching contact areas as a normal force (FN). The resulting friction (FR  = µ ×FN) heats and plasticises the material. The friction coefficient µ changes during the process due to the rising temperature. Based on experience, the joined parts reach temperatures of about 70% of the melting temperature of the friction part with the lower melting point. This fact combined with the resulting diffusion zone of only a few µm explains why non fusion-weldable mating materials can be welded with this process. Other problems associated with fusion welding, such as a loss of hardness in the heat-affected zone or a hardness increase in the weld zone, decrease. At the end of the friction process, components are positioned correctly in relation to each other and pressed together under high pressure with a specified upsetting force. Joining occurs during the upsetting stage. As a result of the temperature and the high upsetting pressure a fine-grained, recrystallized structure develops. The resulting joined area is often harder than the original material. Thermal stresses and warping are reduced by the localised heat input.
Friction welding is a solid-state welding process because no melt occurs in the joining area. The characteristic properties of friction welding make it possible to combine materials that are difficult or impossible to weld together with other methods. For example, it is even possible to join aluminium with ceramics, and steel can also be combined with aluminium without much difficulty.




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