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(Multi)orbital Friction Welding

The Difference Between Orbital and Spin Friction Welding

In orbital friction welding, parts do not have to be rotationally symmetric, unlike in the better known spin welding process. The energy in this case comes from the relative movement of the joining parts by means of a circular vibratory motion of both parts or only one part, similar to a vibrating grinder. Parts do not rotate towards each other. The orientation of the axes thus remains the same. In orbital friction welding, also called „single orbital friction welding” according to ISO 15620, only one of the components vibrates, whereas both vibrate in the case of “multi-orbital friction welding”. For that reason, orbital and multi-orbital friction welding do not have to be restricted to weld components that are more or less rotationally symmetric. There is no torsion angle offset.
In contrast to spin welding, where the relative speed of a point on the surface depends on the component's diameter, the speed in orbital friction welding only depends on the diameter of the orbit. Each point on the weld contact area moves at the same speed, resulting in a more efficient and more consistent energy input. Crystalline structures therefore will not vary depending on diameter. Weldability improves considerably for materials prone to internal stresses and stress cracks, such as ceramics, or for materials that are sensitive to temperature differences in the joining area.

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